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IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

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  • Faculty and Student Perceptions of the Impacts of Communication in the Disciplines (CID) on Students’ Development as Engineers

    機器翻譯

    作者:Paretti, Marie C.Eriksson, AndreasGustafsson, Magnus 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2019年第1期

    Background: Research suggests that communication instruction is particularly effective when situated in disciplinary courses. While studies show that this approach improves communication skills, less is known about how it enhances engineering learning. Literature review: Prior work includes approaches to integrating communication into engineering, studies of writing to learn, and explorations of the role of communication in identity development. Research question: How might the integration of communication instruction and practice into undergraduate engineering courses support engineering learning? Methodology: Because little is known about how communication instruction enhances engineering learning, we conducted an exploratory case study of an established integrated program in one European university. Participants included six engineering instructors, five engineering program heads, and six engineering students. Using interviews and focus groups, we explored the engineering-specific gains that faculty and students perceived from integrating communication assignments into engineering courses. Results: Our analysis yielded three salient areas of learning: 1. understanding disciplinary content, 2. selecting important information, and 3. justifying choices. While the first aligns tightly with writing-to-learn research, all three themes, in fact, bridge content learning and disciplinary literacy to enhance students' development as engineering professionals. Conclusions: Communication instruction can potentially support engineering learning through assignments that prompt students to select information in ways that are consistent with both disciplinary values and the needs of stakeholders, and make and justify decisions about approaches and solutions in ways that demonstrate sound engineering judgment.

    關鍵字:Communication in the disciplinesdisciplinary discourseengineering educationintegrating content and language

  • Faculty and Student Perceptions of the Impacts of Communication in the Disciplines (CID) on Students’ Development as Engineers

    Paretti, Marie C.Eriksson, AndreasGustafsson, Magnus

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2019年第1期

  • Engineering Instructors on Writing: Perceptions, Practices, and Needs

    機器翻譯

    作者:Buswell, Natascha TrellingerJesiek, Brent K.Troy, Cary D.Essig, Rebecca R.Boyd, Joshua 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2019年第1期

    Background: With communication skills deemed increasingly important for engineering graduates, we wanted to understand how writing is currently included in engineering classes, what challenges are caused by including writing in such classes, and what resources would be most useful to help engineering instructors more easily include writing in engineering classes. Literature review: Writing is a necessary skill for engineering graduates and has received increased attention in engineering classes. However, despite many instructors' beliefs that writing is an important skill for engineers, it is not typically taught in a systematic and comprehensive way across the engineering curriculum. Research questions: 1. What perceptions of writing, and specifically writing in engineering, do engineering instructors hold? 2. To what extent do engineering instructors report incorporation of writing activities and assignments in their classes? 3. What barriers do engineering instructors perceive as inhibiting the inclusion of more writing in engineering courses? 4. What resources do engineering instructors desire to expand and improve the inclusion of writing in engineering courses? Research methods: A survey was completed by engineering instructional staff (n = 190 respondents, 10.7% response rate) from seven institutions as well as by some members of the Big10+ Engineering Deans Mailing List. Instructors were asked about their general perceptions about writing in engineering and were also asked to consider the most recent engineering course that they taught and reflect on how they included (or did not include) writing in their course. Findings and conclusions: As expected, we found that most engineering instructional staff agree that writing skills are very important in engineering. Yet, we found that constraints on time and resources kept instructors from including more writing in their courses. This paper concludes with a discussion of our efforts to develop resources, such as rubrics, graded writing examples, and strategies for developing writing prompts, to help instructors include more writing in their engineering courses.

    關鍵字:Instructional resourcesinstructor attitudeswriting

  • Engineering Instructors on Writing: Perceptions, Practices, and Needs

    Buswell, Natascha TrellingerJesiek, Brent K.Troy, Cary D.Essig, Rebecca R.Boyd, Joshua

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2019年第1期

  • YouTube Gamers and Think-Aloud Protocols: Introducing Usability Testing

    機器翻譯

    作者:May, Jamie 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2019年第1期

    Background: Recordings of gamers interacting with video games have become a mainstay of online video-sharing communities such as YouTube. Sometimes called Let's Play videos, those recordings include content relatable to usability testing sessions and potentially illustrate basic think-aloud protocols. Literature review: Research regarding think-aloud protocols indicates that the use of video to review concurrent user commentary is a valid usability testing technique, including sessions that include little to no tester instruction or intervention. Evaluation using a heuristic created for the studied interface can support this type of usability testing. Research questions: 1. Based on a heuristic created from video game usability research, do Let's Play videos provide content representative of think-aloud protocols regarding usability of the games played? 2. Are relevant Let's Play videos potentially useful tools for illustrating think-aloud protocols to students unfamiliar with this type of usability testing? Methods: After reviewing research concerning video game heuristics to create a common set of guidelines, the author selected and reviewed five YouTube videos, gathering and coding information related to the heuristic. Results: The recordings were found to contain relevant information regarding video game usability based on the criteria developed from the literature, specifically considering verbalizations relative to think-aloud protocols. Conclusion: Because these gaming videos contain commentary measurable against a research-based heuristic for game usability, they could be used as an additional method to introduce think-aloud protocols to usability students.

    關鍵字:Heuristic analysisLet's Play (LP) videosthink-aloud protocols (TAPs)usability testingvideo games

  • YouTube Gamers and Think-Aloud Protocols: Introducing Usability Testing

    May, Jamie

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2019年第1期

  • Principles of Place: Developing a Place-Based Ethic for Discussing, Debating, and Anticipating Technical Communication Concerns

    機器翻譯

    作者:Ross, Derek G.Oppegaard, BrettWillerton, Russell 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2019年第1期

    Background: This paper offers a hybrid, place-based ethic drawn from multiple perspectives as a way to reinvigorate ethical thought for technical communicators. Literature review: Aldo Leopold's land ethic asks us to consider actions beyond our immediate surroundings. Martin Buber's dialogic ethics complement a land ethic and interrogate interpersonal communication. Anticipatory technology ethics recommends the integration of ethical discussions and decisions during the design phase of new technologies. Together, these three approaches inform a place-based ethic for technical communicators. Research questions: 1. How might we meaningfully merge the many ways that technical communicators from varying backgrounds approach ethics into a useful ethical model that considers human interaction, technological innovation, and physical place? 2. How might such a merged model, what we call a place-based ethic, affect technical communication design? Methods: We analyze cases including documents from radical environmental defense groups, a restyling of certain federal court rules from legalese into plainer language, the creation of mortgage documents suitable for consumers and industry professionals, and the action-research design phase of a locative mobile application about public art. Results and conclusion: The cases provide concrete examples of the components of a place-based ethic, and we conclude that designing with a place-based ethic includes actively acknowledging the value of the environment, seeking areas for dialogue among involved parties and celebrating dialogue where it occurs, seeking shared spaces, clearly stating anticipated outcomes, and usability testing for potential ethical issues.

    關鍵字:Anticipatory technology ethicsdecision-makingethicsland ethicmobile application designnarrow ridgeplace-based ethic

  • Principles of Place: Developing a Place-Based Ethic for Discussing, Debating, and Anticipating Technical Communication Concerns

    Ross, Derek G.Oppegaard, BrettWillerton, Russell

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2019年第1期

  • Social Network Site Skills for Communication Professionals: Conceptualization, Operationalization, and an Empirical Investigation

    機器翻譯

    作者:van Deursen, Alexander J. A. M.Verlage, Carlavan Laar, Ester 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2019年第1期

    Background: The primary goal of the current study was to conceptualize and operationalize social networking sites (SNS) skills for communication professionals. Literature review: The development of the definition and measurement instrument began with a critical look at internet skills literature. We propose a three-fold instrument for measuring SNS skills: communication, content creation, and strategic SNS skills. Research questions: 1. Which skills do communication professionals need to effectively use SNS? 2. Which SNS use-related factors contribute to the level of SNS skills? Method: We ensured that the proposed measures reflected typical SNS uses for communication professionals. All items in the instrument used a scale that contained statements about SNS skills, with answer formats that ranged from \"Not at all true of me\" to \"Very true of me.\" After the development of a first survey instrument, we conducted cognitive interviews that resulted in some amendments to the proposed skill items to improve clarity. The SNS skill scales and their characteristics were then tested in a pilot study. Results: The resulting instrument was refined in the final study among 203 German communication professionals. Conclusion: The findings suggest a recommendation for the use of a 15-item survey measure for communication, content creation, and strategic SNS skills in professional contexts. Our findings furthermore suggest that communication and content creation SNS skills are better developed than strategic SNS skills. Finally, several SNS use variables were identified as predictors of SNS skills.

    關鍵字:Communication skillscontent creation skillssocial networking site (SNS) skillsstrategic skills

  • Social Network Site Skills for Communication Professionals: Conceptualization, Operationalization, and an Empirical Investigation

    van Deursen, Alexander J. A. M.Verlage, Carlavan Laar, Ester

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2019年第1期

  • After-Hours Work Connectivity: Technological Antecedents and Implications

    機器翻譯

    作者:Chen, AdelaCasterella, Gretchen Irwin 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2019年第1期

    Background: Knowledge workers have become \"technologically-tethered,\" increasingly using mobile and communication technologies to engage in work during nonwork or \"after-hours\" personal time. Literature review: Research has identified several individual- and organizational-level predictors of this after-hours technology-enabled work behavior and its primarily negative consequences. However, little is known regarding the behavior's potential benefits or the ways in which it is affected by technology characteristics. Research questions: 1. How do technology characteristics affect after-hours work connectivity? 2. How does after-hours technology use affect work-life balance? Methodology: We test our hypotheses with a survey-based research design involving 312 knowledge workers, and analyze our data with covariance-based structural equation modeling. Results: After-hours work connectivity increases when the technology affords lower levels of immediacy and greater levels of concurrency, rehearsability, and reprocessability. A post-hoc analysis reveals that workers who might be expected to have low levels of after-hours work connectivity-such as those who have children at home or whose employers have a high segmentation norm-have higher levels of after-hours connectivity than their counterparts when the technology has high concurrency. We also find support for a curvilinear (inverted-U shaped) relationship between after-hours technology use and work-life balance. Conclusion: Individuals are amenable to interweaving technology-enabled work with nonwork tasks when the technology facilitates asynchronous and user-controlled interactions. Furthermore, this interweaving has a positive impact on work-life balance, up to a point. We discuss the implications of these findings for research and practice.

    關鍵字:After-hours work connectivitymedia synchronicity theory (MST)mobile technologywork-life interaction

  • After-Hours Work Connectivity: Technological Antecedents and Implications

    Chen, AdelaCasterella, Gretchen Irwin

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2019年第1期

  • Locating and Describing the Work of Technical Communication in an Online User Network

    機器翻譯

    作者:Jason Swarts 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2018年第4期

    Background: Online user networks are important points of contact for users who seek help from their peers rather than documentation. Literature review: The appeal of online user networks coincides with and seems connected to growing user interest in topicalized and tailored content, the production of which is inconsistent with the “craftsman” model of technical communication. Studies of online user networks indicate that community members may be practicing a different kind of technical communication. Research questions: This study examines an online user network for an open-source software product and asks how we can study online user networks, with the aim of identifying important people, practices, and relationships associated with the kind of technical communication practiced in those settings. Research methodology: Social network analysis is used to visualize the structural properties of an online user network, in order to identify central figures and their relationships to others. Verbal data-analysis techniques are used to find themes in their contributions. Results/discussion: People who are central to the structure of online interaction are important figures in the distribution of the technical communication effort. They engage users in reciprocal exchanges of information and they influence user practices. They are also important as brokers who link users and developers. Broadly, their conversational exchanges are a kind of distributed technical communication. Implications for practice: We learn what the practice of technical communication looks like in an online user network. By observing the work of participants, technical communicators can understand what it means to do technical communication and make user networks a more integral part of a broader documentation strategy. We see promising ways in which technical experts (e.g., software developers) can engage with users as well.

    關鍵字:DocumentationCognitionOpen source softwareProductionSocial network services

  • Locating and Describing the Work of Technical Communication in an Online User Network

    Jason Swarts

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2018年第4期

  • Hand Collecting and Coding Versus Data-Driven Methods in Technical and Professional Communication Research

    機器翻譯

    作者:Claire LauerEva BrumbergerAaron Beveridge 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2018年第4期

    Background: Qualitative technical communication research often produces datasets that are too large to manage effectively with hand-coded approaches. Text-mining methods, used carefully, may uncover patterns and provide results for larger datasets that are more easily reproduced and scaled. Research questions: 1. To what degree can hand collection results be replicated by automated data collection? 2. To what degree can hand-coded results be replicated by machine coding? 3. What are the affordances and limitations of each method? Literature review:We introduce the stages of data collection and analysis that researchers typically discuss in the literature, and show how researchers in technical communication and other fields have discussed the affordances and limitations of hand collection and coding versus automated methods throughout each stage. Research methodology: We utilize an existing dataset that was hand-collected and hand-coded. We discuss the collection and coding processes, and demonstrate how they might be replicated with web scraping and machine coding. Results/discussion: We found that web scraping demonstrated an obvious advantage of automated data collection: speed. Machine coding was able to provide comparable outputs to hand coding for certain types of data; for more nuanced and verbally complex data, machine coding was less useful and less reliable. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of considering the context of a particular project when weighing the affordances and limitations of hand collecting and coding over automated approaches. Ultimately, a mixed-methods approach that relies on a combination of hand coding and automated coding should prove to be the most productive for current and future kinds of technical communication work, in which close attention to the nuances of language is critical, but in which processing large amounts of data would yield significant benefits as well.

    關鍵字:EncodingData collectionText miningNatural language processingDatabasesReliability

  • Hand Collecting and Coding Versus Data-Driven Methods in Technical and Professional Communication Research

    Claire LauerEva BrumbergerAaron Beveridge

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2018年第4期

  • Introducing Fireant: A Freeware, Multiplatform Social Media Data-Analysis Tool

    機器翻譯

    作者:Laurence Anthony 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2018年第4期

    This paper introduces a new social media data-analysis tool called FireAnt that allows technical and professional communication researchers, instructors, and students to easily collect, analyze, and visualize social media communication.Problem:Currently, most social media analysis is carried out using custom computer scripts written in programming languages such as Python and R. Although these custom scripts can be very powerful, they create an enormous barrier to those without a strong computational background or the resources to hire a software engineer or data scientist.Key concepts:FireAnt is a freeware, stand-alone, multiplatform social media data-analysis tool designed for both novice and expert computer users. It can be used to collect, analyze, and subsequently visualize social media data as time-series plots, geopositional maps, and network graphs. It can also export results for further processing using traditional corpus tools, statistical packages, and custom scripts. Key lessons:This paper will show how FireAnt can be used to collect social media data related to specific companies, analyze those data, and visualize the data in a variety of ways.Implications for practice:FireAnt has applications in various technical and professional communication settings-for example, as part of a strategy to develop a social media presence and in the analysis of company-customer interactions and user perceptions of goods and services. It can also be used in the technical writing classroom as part of instructor- and student-centered instruction on the safe, appropriate, and effective use of language on social media platforms .

    關鍵字:ToolsData visualizationTwitterPython

  • Introducing Fireant: A Freeware, Multiplatform Social Media Data-Analysis Tool

    Laurence Anthony

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2018年第4期

  • Exploring an Ethnography-Based Knowledge Network Model for Professional Communication Analysis of Knowledge Integration

    機器翻譯

    作者:Mark A. HannahMichael Simeone 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2018年第4期

    Research problem: In contemporary knowledge-intensive spaces, workers often team with experts from different disciplinary backgrounds and different geographic locations and, thus, they face the challenge of integrating knowledge in their work. When modeling how communication can be improved in these circumstances, previous studies have often relied on social network analysis to understand the aggregate exchanges among team members. In this study, rather than analyze social networks (people linked by communication), we argue that network analysis of knowledge networks (people linked by common knowledge) presents an opportunity to better understand and address the challenge of knowledge integration in organizational contexts. Research questions: 1. How can professional communicators use the distribution of knowledge on teams as a structure for planning interventions in the work of complex, collaborative teams? 2. What kinds of insights do networks of specific knowledge areas offer professional communicators about team communication challenges? Literature review: We describe prior uses of network analysis in professional communication research that inform our development of a knowledge network. In particular, we review current literature and highlight network-based concepts that we believe are organizing principles of knowledge networks. Previous literature has shown that network models, particularly social network models, are useful tools for professional communication researchers to examine a range of communication factors and practices. However, professional communication research has yet to fully explore the possible contributions of knowledge networks to understand communication processes. Methodology: We conducted an ethnography of a team science collaboration and used observations to create a survey of terms that measured subjects' self-professed understanding of key concepts. We used the survey results to produce a bimodal network model of agents and terms, in which we binarized link values after filtering for only the highest-rated terms for each subject. Results: The model demonstrated that the team collaboration broke into two distinct groupings. Ego networks extracted from this parent network showed that concepts commonly well-understood in the team join together multiple subgroups of expert knowledge. Conclusions: The knowledge network is a useful instrument in helping team members understand possibilities for integrating knowledge across disciplines and subspecialties. The visual produced by this model also can be useful for developing research questions and strategizing work processes.

    關鍵字:Knowledge engineeringOrganizationsVisualizationSemanticsAnalytical modelsSocial network services

  • Exploring an Ethnography-Based Knowledge Network Model for Professional Communication Analysis of Knowledge Integration

    Mark A. HannahMichael Simeone

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2018年第4期

  • More Than a Feeling: Applying a Data-Driven Framework in the Technical and Professional Communication Team Project

    機器翻譯

    作者:Chris Lam 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2018年第4期

    Introduction: Group projects are a common pedagogical tool for technical and professional communication courses. These projects provide students with valuable learning experiences that they would not otherwise receive working individually. However, student group projects come with some unique challenges, such as unequal distribution of work, unequal levels of learning, and perceptions of fairness. Situating the case: While many instructor-led resources and strategies exist for facilitating group projects, fewer student-empowering strategies exist. Data provide one potential way to empower students to take ownership of their team experience and make more informed decisions throughout the teamwork process. About the case: This teaching case was born out of a response to the many teamwork problems that are outlined in the literature and that the author has observed as an instructor. This teaching case describes the implementation and outcomes of a data-driven framework for decision making called collect, analyze, triangulate, and act (CAT) that the author developed. After they learned about the CATA framework, the students completed a series of data-driven exercises during the team formation, team functioning, and team evaluation stages of the team project. Perceptions of CATA's effectiveness were collected after the project ended. Methods: A mixed-methods approach, which included a survey and a series of interviews, was used to gain insights into how both team members and team leaders perceived the CATA framework. Results: Survey results indicated that students found the CATA framework helpful in many team contexts. Students expressed particularly strong opinions about how CATA aided in the fairness and accuracy of peer evaluations, was helpful for self-reflection, and was useful for making informed arguments to convince team members of a decision. Interviews with team leaders revealed that appealing to data using the CATA framework was helpful in managing the team but had limited capacity to aid in managing conflict. Conclusions: Students realized many benefits from the CATA framework, and some team leaders even felt empowered in certain instances by appealing to data. However, instructors should still consider scaffolding data literacy and teamwork skills for students to be fully prepared for successful teamwork.

    關鍵字:TeamworkEducationDecision makingWritingMedia

  • More Than a Feeling: Applying a Data-Driven Framework in the Technical and Professional Communication Team Project

    Chris Lam

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2018年第4期

  • Global Technical Communication in 7.5 Weeks Online: Combining Industry and Academic Perspectives

    機器翻譯 7.5周在線全球技術交流:結合行業和學術視角

    作者:Tatiana Batova 期刊:Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions on 2018年第3期

    Introduction:nWith the growing need for intensive and online course formats, it has become increasingly difficult to determine what combinations of knowledge and skills that are important for both academia and industry can best provide students with the grounding for exploring the questions of global technical communication (TC) during their programs.nAbout the case:nThe 7.5-week online global TC course at Arizona State University is divided into six theme-based units and a unit that focuses on a research/revision project.nSituating the case:nWhile over the last 20 years, excellent practical materials for teaching global TC have been published, there is a need for comprehensive course descriptions, particularly for courses in online and intensive formats.nMethods/approach:nThe course was based on an extensive literature review of academic and trade publications. The course's effectiveness was analyzed based on final reflective discussion assignments and anonymous student course evaluations.nResults/discussion:nThe literature review revealed six major themes that define global TC: culture and communication, the frameworks of culture, verbal communication, global content and technology, visual communication, and cross-cultural collaboration and audience work. Each unit addressed one of these themes. The course was well-received, and students started posing critical questions to explore in future courses.nConclusions:nIn our program, having a dedicated global TC course was very beneficial because it introduced students to concepts that they could further explore in other 7.5-week online courses. In addition, I present recommendations for adopting/adapting the course, as well as its limitations and suggestions for future research.

    關鍵字:EducationIndustriesCultural differencesGlobal communicationBibliographies

    機器翻譯 Education;Industries;Cultural differences;Global communication;Bibliographies;

  • Global Technical Communication in 7.5 Weeks Online: Combining Industry and Academic Perspectives

    Tatiana Batova

    Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions on

    2018年第3期

  • Alberto Ferreira

    機器翻譯 阿爾貝托費雷拉

    作者:R. Jason Pinkerton 期刊:Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions on 2018年第3期

    關鍵字:Cultural differencesGlobal communicationProduct designIndexesMarket researchEurope

    機器翻譯 Cultural differences;Global communication;product design;Indexes;market research;Europe;

  • Alberto Ferreira

    R. Jason Pinkerton

    Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions on

    2018年第3期

  • An Investigation of Maintenance Technicians’ Information-Seeking Behavior in a Repair Center

    機器翻譯 維修技師維修中心信息查詢行為的調查

    作者:Jonatan LundinYvonne Eriksson 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2018年第3期

    Research problem:nWhen it comes to understanding certain aspects of a maintenance technician's information-seeking behavior, knowledge is lacking. For instance, little is known about what kinds of information needs that maintenance technicians exhibit while performing work tasks and what types of sources they employ to satisfy those needs. Understanding such information-seeking behavior is especially essential for technical communicators who endeavor to design useful and relevant technical information.nResearch questions:n1. What information needs do maintenance technicians show evidence of while performing maintenance work tasks? 2. Where do they go to satisfy these information needs?nLiterature review:nCurrent knowledge on maintenance technicians’ information-seeking behavior is very limited. The literature reviewed for this study covers the task-based information-seeking behavior of different types of engineers and is mainly found within the field of library and information science research. This literature was selected because maintenance technicians and engineers share many characteristics. One information-seeking characteristic exhibited by engineers is the tendency to rely on internal company information, such as colleagues and self-created sources, before external information sources are consulted.nMethodology:nThis study utilized an ethnographic research approach where empirical data were collected, analyzed, and interpreted from a theoretical viewpoint—a synthesis of Bystr?m and Hansen's conceptual framework and the Systemic-Structural Theory of Activity. Seven in-house aftermarket maintenance technicians were observed via participant observation at a repair center in Sweden while they performed maintenance tasks on machines that had been taken out of service.nResults and conclusions:nThe results—based on empirical data collected over the course of 12 days, spread over 12 weeks in the autumn of 2012—reveal that the observed maintenance technicians exhibited 50 different types of information needs. They seldom sought instructions covering an entire work task. Instead, to satisfy their information needs, the maintenance technicians consulted four types of sources that, in the present study, have been designated as information source hosts.

    關鍵字:Maintenance engineeringTask analysisInformation scienceLibrariesManualsBibliographies

    機器翻譯 維護工程;任務分析;信息科學;圖書館;手冊;參考書目;

  • An Investigation of Maintenance Technicians’ Information-Seeking Behavior in a Repair Center

    Jonatan LundinYvonne Eriksson

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2018年第3期

  • Metaphor Use in Chinese and American CSR Reports

    機器翻譯 隱喻在中美企業社會責任報告中的應用

    作者:Ya SunGuangsa JinYingli YangJingjing Zhao 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2018年第3期

    Background:nCorporate social responsibility (CSR) reports are one of the vehicles for developing corporate images, namely, the cognitive representation of a company perceived by the concerned stakeholders. It would be interesting to compare the CSR reports of companies of the world's two largest economies: the US and China.nLiterature review:nPrevious studies of CSR reports tend to highlight their lexicogrammatical, semantic, and functional features at the discursive level, but few studies have examined the cognitive images that companies intend to develop at the level of conceptual structure (knowledge representation). This study investigates metaphor use as a discursive and cognitive strategy for developing corporate images in Chinese and American CSR reports from the perspective of corpus-based conceptual metaphor analysis, particularly based on the concept of genre-specific metaphors, the metaphors used to conventionally construe notions for a certain communicative purpose achieved by a particular discourse community.nResearch questions:n1. What are the major concerns of Chinese and American CSR reports? 2. What are the genre-specific metaphors used to construe major concerns of Chinese and American CSR reports? 3. What do the genre-specific metaphors reveal about the corporate images of Chinese and US companies? Are there differences in developing corporate images between Chinese and American CSR reports?nMethodology:nWe collected CSR reports of the top companies in China and the US, identified genre-specific linguistic and conceptual metaphors, and conducted comparative analysis of metaphor-based corporate images.nResults and conclusions:nThe conceptual metaphors genre-specific to CSR reports are businesses are objects, business is war, business is a journey, and business competition is competitive games/sports. Furthermore, CSR reports of both countries share most genre-specific metaphor parings and thus nearly the same mappings, which contribute to building corporate images of being economically competitive, ethically cooperative, and environmentally responsible. Although both stress self-development and taking a leading position, American companies seem to pay more attention to external cooperation with others. On the other hand, Chinese companies seem to stress internal cooperation and a well-organized hierarchy. Admittedly, this study may be limited in terms of analyzing only genre-specific metaphors and not balancing sector types of the companies in the two corpora.

    關鍵字:CompaniesLinguisticsStakeholdersEconomicsSunContainers

    機器翻譯 公司;語言學;利益相關者;經濟學;太陽;容器;

  • Metaphor Use in Chinese and American CSR Reports

    Ya SunGuangsa JinYingli YangJingjing Zhao

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2018年第3期

  • Transliteracies in Intercultural Professional Communication

    機器翻譯 跨文化專業傳播中的音譯

    作者:Josephine Walwema 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2018年第3期

    Teaching problem:nThe comparative/contrastive approach to teaching intercultural communication is based on the premise that global rhetorical practices are not mere indicators of the cultural proclivities of a people, but are also a framework for developing a working knowledge about how members of a culture communicate. However, this approach predisposes learners to contrasting those cultures against their own and reinforces their preconceptions about national cultural characteristics. Augmenting that approach with transliteracies—emphasizing the benefits of knowledge sourcing not limited to scholarly/academic sources—offers a multidimensional perspective to intercultural communication.nResearch question:nHow can transliteracy inquiry be applied in teaching and learning global rhetorics?nSituating the case:nThe approaches described here draw on the work of literacy researchers who delineate ways in which transliteracy broadens the scope of learning materials, including texts that are cultural and social (as opposed to linguistic) and that can be studied for what they convey about those cultures.nHow the case was studied:nThis paper describes the experience of using transliteracies to teach intercultural professional communication. The material was collected informally over the course of two years of teaching the course through observation, student completed research reports, and reflections.nAbout the case:nThe shortcomings of contrastive and comparative rhetoric pedagogy in intercultural communication may be due in part to instructional materials selection and prioritization of what teachers deem to be scholarly. Reasoning that the basic architecture of a global rhetorics lies in its surrounding culture, artifacts, and communication systems, I designed an assignment that required students to describe how one culture's heritage, history, governmental systems, and value systems contribute to the development of persuasion and uses of rhetoric.nResults:nTransliteracies opened up spaces that allowed students to gain an in-depth understanding of others’ rhetorical practices without contrasting them against their own and by approaching them as ethnographic objects of study. Students engaged the object of their scholarship more expansively.nConclusions:nTransliteracies in intercultural professional communication served to move students toward a more immersive and empathetic understanding of referent cultures, a stance that enriches professional communication. Students displayed a more altruistic value system in representing their objects of study and were careful to recognize that their work might be accessed by a wider audience. Transliteracies offer a practical toolkit for comprehending and fashioning understandable and compelling arguments about other cultures.

    關鍵字:RhetoricCultural differencesGlobal communicationScholarshipsMedia

    機器翻譯 修辭;文化差異;全球傳播;獎學金;媒體;

  • Transliteracies in Intercultural Professional Communication

    Josephine Walwema

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2018年第3期

  • Framing Controversy on Social Media: #NoDAPL and the Debate About the Dakota Access Pipeline on Twitter

    機器翻譯 構建社交媒體上的爭議:#NoDapL和Twitter上關于Dakota訪問管道的爭論

    作者:Jessica M. SmithTom van Ierland 期刊:Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions on 2018年第3期

    Background:nThis research explores how controversial engineering decisions become the subject of widespread social media debates, using the prominent case of activism opposed to the Dakota Access pipeline (DAPL). The #NoDAPL Twitter hashtag became the primary vehicle for activism, with Twitter users shaping the debate through how they framed the controversy.nLiterature review:nFraming refers to how information is packaged and presented. Because framing shapes the interpretation of information, it plays a crucial role in scientific controversies.nResearch questions:n1. Which framing strategies are present in the most influential (determined by the number of retweets and “likes”) posts using #NoDAPL on Twitter? 2. How do the framing strategies used in the most influential #NoDAPL tweets change in relation to major political events? 3. Do the framing strategies used in the most influential #NoDAPL tweets amplify the echo-chamber effect and polarization on Twitter?nMethodology:nThe team collected daily data on the #NoDAPL hashtag and selected tweets with #NoDAPL that had more than 1500 likes or retweets, and categorized them by the frames that they exhibited.nResults and discussion:nThe most-used frames were conflict/strategy and morality/ethics, with no noticeable middle path frame, leading to the echo-chamber effect and online polarization. The scientific/technical uncertainty frame was used only sporadically, in contrast with project proponents who tried to emphasize the pipeline's safety.nImplications:nEngineers seeking to understand and participate in public debates about issues central to their profession should recognize and engage the frames being used by the public to understand information. The project proponents’ defense of the pipeline fell on deaf ears, likely because they focused on safety rather than broader questions of morality. While engineers should share technical information related to a project under fire, they cannot ignore the concerns expressed by their critics.

    關鍵字:PipelinesTwitterCompaniesTaggingOilsRocks

    機器翻譯 管道; Twitter的;公司;標注;油;巖石;

  • Framing Controversy on Social Media: #NoDAPL and the Debate About the Dakota Access Pipeline on Twitter

    Jessica M. SmithTom van Ierland

    Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions on

    2018年第3期

  • A Multidimensional Analysis of Research Article Discussion Sections in the Field of Chemical Engineering

    機器翻譯 化學工程領域研究論文部分的多維分析

    作者:Bixi Jin 期刊:Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions on 2018年第3期

    Background:nThis study investigates linguistic characterizations in the form of linguistic co-occurrence patterns in discussion sections of English research articles (RAs) in an engineering discipline (i.e., chemical engineering) and linguistic variations that distinguish discussion sections of high-impact articles from those in low-impact articles.nResearch questions:n1. What underlying linguistic characterizations are salient in RA discussions in chemical engineering? 2. Are there any differences in the identified linguistic characterizations of discussion sections between high- and low-impact RAs?nLiterature review:nIn the process of composing RAs, the discussion section is a difficult and challenging part-genre to write. The rhetorical organization of RA discussions has been examined extensively through Swales's English for Specific Purposes genre analysis. However, the linguistic characterizations of RA discussion sections remain unclear and the question of whether discernible differences exist between discussions of high- and low-impact RAs in a specialized engineering discipline remains unanswered.nMethodology:nThis study used Biber's multidimensional (MD) analysis method. In response to the first research question, factor analysis (in this study, principal component analysis) was adopted to identify the linguistic characterizations in the form of linguistic co-occurrence patterns (“dimensions”) in 213 RA discussion sections extracted from chemical engineering RAs. To answer the second question, the independent t-test was implemented to compare the high- and low-impact RA discussion sections in the identified dimensions.nResults and conclusions:nSix linguistic characterizations in the form of linguistic co-occurrence patterns were identified in RA discussion sections: 1. involvement and interactivity, 2. non-narration versus narration, 3. evaluative statements with further explanations and elaborations, 4. informational density, 5. stating results/claims, and 6. expression of denial relationships toward statement or experimental findings. The results suggest the linguistic characterizations in RA discussion sections and interesting differences in the high- and low-impact RA discussion sections, especially in Dimensions 1, 3, and 5. Reasons for the linguistic variations in the identified dimensions are discussed, followed by the pedagogical implications for reading or writing RAs for international scientific communication.

    關鍵字:LinguisticsChemical engineeringBibliographiesOrganizationsPrincipal component analysisIndexes

    機器翻譯 語言學;化學工程;書目;組織;主成分分析;指數;

  • A Multidimensional Analysis of Research Article Discussion Sections in the Field of Chemical Engineering

    Bixi Jin

    Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions on

    2018年第3期

  • Lisa Emerson

    機器翻譯 麗莎愛默生

    作者:Raymond Floyd 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2018年第3期

    關鍵字:WritingInterviewsEngineering professionIndexesBook reviewsSocial network servicesSTEM

    機器翻譯 寫作;訪談;工程專業;索引;書評;社交網絡服務; sTEm;

  • Lisa Emerson

    Raymond Floyd

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2018年第3期

  • Resolving Discourse at Technical-Support Helpdesks

    機器翻譯 在技??術支持服務臺解決話語問題

    作者:Vincent D. Robles 期刊:IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 2018年第3期

    Background:nThis study examined discourse during the problem resolution process in face-to-face technical-support interactions between technical-support providers and users at a helpdesk. Specifically, this study responds to the limited discourse-based research in technical-support interactions, despite the agreement that exploring communication within these interactions can help to improve them.nLiterature review:nResearch in technical communication has only begun to systematically explore the microlevel (smaller, moment-to-moment) communication in these interactions, though it has provided a well-established understanding of their macrolevel (genre) structure. Further, research has not completely explored how the two participants in the interaction work discursively to resolve technical problems and what strategies appear to promote user satisfaction.nResearch questions:n1. What microlevel discourse do technical-support providers employ to resolve technical problems? 2. What microlevel discourse do users employ when collaborating with technical-support providers to resolve technical problems? 3. What microlevel discourse from both technical-support providers and users appears in satisfactory interactions? 4. What exchange patterns between the two participants appear in satisfactory interactions?nMethodology:nUsing speech-act discourse analysis, this study examined 17 helpdesk interactions that resolved problems. These interactions occurred at a large, Midwestern US university helpdesk at which 11 instructors sought help with instructional technologies. Using a post-session survey completed by the users, I compared interactions with above- and below-average levels of user satisfaction to determine which microlevel discourse promoted user satisfaction with the help experience.nResults:nTechnical-support providers employed signals announcing their thoughts and actions, gave explanations of the technology, and communicated confirmations or denials to user questions. Users employed inquiries about the technology, gave background information, and communicated confirmations or denials to technical-support provider questions. Statistically significant results about both speakers’ discourse indicate that typical instructional strategies (such as explanations) do not necessarily characterize more satisfactory interactions. Instead, alternate forms of instruction (minimal responses or giving background information from personal experience) contribute toward satisfactory outcomes. Also, users’ facility in asking follow-up questions or in giving further background information even during the problem-resolution stage appears to promote satisfaction. Further, a closer examination of the exchanges reveals how both participants interact in these ways.nConclusions:nThis study provides further insight into the typical instructional strategies identified by other researchers. Specifically, although explanations or directions do characterize problem resolution, these discourse strategies do not necessarily characterize distinctly satisfactory problem resolution. As one of the only studies of the functional discourse within technical-support interactions, this study provides researchers and practitioners further insight into how these important interactions work when technical-support providers resolve problems.

    關鍵字:CompaniesCustomer servicesDocumentationBibliographiesEncoding

    機器翻譯 公司;客戶服務;文檔;參考書目;編碼;

  • Resolving Discourse at Technical-Support Helpdesks

    Vincent D. Robles

    IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

    2018年第3期

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